Apex Technology is a renowned firm which is involved in commitment to quality, we are manufacturing and supplying quality-approved Fluoride Removal Filter. This filter is fitted with set of frontal valve & pipe work. High quality material, which is sourced from certified vendors of market is used in the manufacturing process of the offered range of filters. We use high quality German media as well as Indian media.

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Water fluoridation is the controlled addition offluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. Fluoridated water contains fluoride at a level that is effective for preventing cavities; this can occur naturally or by adding fluoride. … Bottled watertypically has unknown fluoride levels.

Clear water pours from a spout into a drinking glass.

Fluoridation does not affect the appearance, taste or smell of drinking water.

Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. Fluoridated water contains fluoride at a level that is effective for preventing cavities; this can occur naturally or by adding fluoride.Fluoridated water operates on tooth surfaces: in the mouth, it creates low levels of fluoride in saliva, which reduces the rate at which tooth enamel demineralizes and increases the rate at which it remineralizes in the early stages of cavities. Typically a fluoridated compound is added to drinking water, a process that in the U.S. costs an average of about $1.06 per person-year.Defluoridation is needed when the naturally occurring fluoride level exceeds recommended limits. In 2011 the World Health Organization suggested a level of fluoride from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L (milligrams per litre), depending on climate, local environment, and other sources of fluoride.Bottled water typically has unknown fluoride levels.

Dental caries remains a major public health concern in most industrialized countries, affecting 60–90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults.Water fluoridation reduces cavities in children, while efficacy in adults is less clear, A Cochranereview estimates a reduction in cavities when water fluoridation was used by children who had no access to other sources of fluoride to be 35% in baby teeth and 26% in permanent teeth.The evidence quality was poor. Most European countries have experienced substantial declines in tooth decay without its use, however milk and salt fluoridation is widespread.Recent studies suggest that water fluoridation, particularly in industrialized nations, may be unnecessary because topical fluorides (such as in toothpaste) are widely used, and caries rates have become low.

Although fluoridation can cause dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of developing teeth or enamel fluorosis the differences are mild and usually not considered to be of aesthetic or public health concern. There is no clear evidence of other adverse effects from water fluoridation. Fluoride’s effects depend on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources. Drinking water is typically the largest source other methods of fluoride therapy include fluoridation of toothpaste, salt, and milk.The views on the most efficient method for community prevention of tooth decay are mixed. The Australian government states that water fluoridation is the most effective way to achieve fluoride exposure that is community-wide.The World Health Organization reports that water fluoridation, when feasible and culturally acceptable, has substantial advantages, especially for subgroups at high risk while the European Commission finds no benefit to water fluoridation compared with topical use.Public water fluoridation was first practiced in the U.S. As of 2012, 25 countries have artificial water fluoridation to varying degrees, 11 of them have more than 50% of their population drinking fluoridated water. A further 28 countries have water that is naturally fluoridated, though in many of them the fluoride is above the recommended safe level.As of 2012, about 435 million people worldwide received water fluoridated at the recommended level (i.e., about 5.4% of the global population) About 214 million of them living in the United States.Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization and FDI World Dental Federation supported water fluoridation as safe and effective.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists water fluoridation as one of the ten great public health achievements of the 20th century in the U.S.Despite this, the practice is controversial as a public health measure; some countries and communities have discontinued it, while others have expanded it, Opponents of the practice argue that neither the benefits nor the risks have been studied adequately, and debate the conflict between what might be considered mass medication and individual liberties.



The study describes the removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified immobilized activated alumina (MIAA) prepared by sol-gel method. The modification was done by adding a specific amount of alum during the sol formation step. The fluoride removal efficiency of MIAA was 1.35 times higher as compared to normal immobilized activated alumina. A batch adsorption study was performed as a function of adsorbent dose, contact time, stirring rate, and initial fluoride concentration. More than 90% removal of fluoride was achieved within 60 minutes of contact time. The adsorption potential of MIAA was compared with activated charcoal which showed that the removal efficiency was about 10% more than the activated charcoal. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fitted well for the fluoride adsorption on MIAA with the regression coefficient R2 of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. MIAA can both be regenerated thermally and chemically. Adsorption experiments using MIAA were employed on real drinking water samples from a fluoride affected area. The study showed that modified immobilized activated alumina is an effective adsorbent for fluoride removal.

1. Introduction

Fluoride is present in ground water coming either from natural sources like weathering and volcanic processes or from wastewater of industries like fertilizer, glass, ceramic, brick, iron works, and electroplating [1]. Fluoride has both beneficial and harmful effects on the human health depending upon its level. Among the beneficial effects of fluoride in human body, strengthening of bones and prevention from tooth decay are significant. The permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L according to the National Standards for Drinking Water Quality of Pakistan [2] and the World Health Organization [3]. Above this limit, fluoride can lead to various diseases such as skeletal and dental fluorosis, brittle bones, cancer, infertility, brain damage, Alzheimer’s syndrome, and thyroid disorder [4].

The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) estimates that the numbers of individuals affected by fluorosis are in the tens of millions across 25 countries in both developed and developing nations [5]. A number of such cases have been identified in Pakistan where people suffered from harmful diseases due to industrial discharge of fluorides. In July 2000, a tragic situation was reported in Manga Mandi area (near Lahore, Punjab) where level of fluoride reached up to 20 mg/L in drinking water that led to the bone and teeth deformities in local people

The techniques available for defluoridation include coagulation-precipitation, membrane process, ion exchange, and adsorption processes. Although coagulation-precipitation (also known as Nalgonda technique) is an effective and cheap method but its main disadvantage is the generation of harmful waste products. The membrane process is mainly the reverse osmosis technique but it requires high maintenance cost due to fouling, scaling, and degradation of membrane. Similarly, the ion exchange process is very costly [7]. The adsorption method is considered more appropriate for defluoridation due to its simplicity, effectiveness, and economic viability [8].

The important adsorbents that have been tested for the fluoride removal include activated alumina [9], activated charcoal [10], zeolite [11], biosorbents [12], and nanosorbents [13]. Activated charcoal is considered as a universal adsorbent because of its applications and viability. Tembhurkar and Dongre studied the removal of fluoride using activated charcoal [14]. Activated alumina is also an efficient adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water but it has limited regeneration capacity and slow rate of adsorption [15].

Several studies have been conducted to increase the efficiency of activated alumina for defluoridation. In a study, alum impregnated activated alumina was used to remove fluoride from drinking water with the removal efficiency of 99% at pH 6.5 [16]. Similarly, another study reports the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of fluoride removal using sol-gel-derived activated alumina adsorbent [17]. In this study, calcium oxide and manganese oxide coating were done on sol-gel-derived activated alumina to enhance its fluoride removal efficiency.

The main challenge encountered during the adoption studies is the separation of adsorbent after use from water samples. Generally, filtration is employed for the separation of powdered adsorbents. The aim of the present study was to prepare an immobilized adsorbent in the form of granules that could easily be separated from water without undergoing filtration and centrifugation processes. For this purpose, sol-gel method has been adopted [18] to prepare immobilized activated alumina with uniform surface properties. The immobilized activated alumina has further been modified by adding alum to enhance its adsorption capabilities. The modified immobilized activated alumina (MIAA) was tested for the treatment of water from fluoride affected Manga Mandi area (near Lahore, Pakistan).